Middle School Geography

Middle School Geography

Course Features

Course Details

Course Overview

Middle School Geography begins with an overview of Geography and the issues that it impacts. The course goes on to examine the geography of the world and the great events shaped by it. Course topics include:
  • Introduction to Geography
  • People, Economy and Culture
  • Government
  • Looking at the Past
  • Countries of North, Central, and South America
  • Ancient Greece and Rome
  • Middle Ages to Renaissance
  • Exploration to Revolution
  • The 20th Century
  • Europe
  • Russia
  • West, North, and East Africa
  • The East -- Near and Far
  • Oceana

This course was developed by the International Academy of Science. Learn More

Scope and Sequence

Unit 1 – Introduction to Geography This unit covers directions, latitude, longitude, Earth's surface including maps and plates, the Planet Earth, weather, water, climate, ecosystems, and resources. Unit 2 – People and Economy This unit discusses what an economy is, different economic systems, development, trade, money, population, immigration, and urbanization. Unit 3 – People and Culture This unit presents an overview of culture and discusses society, languages, religion, and culture including the arts and technology. Unit 4 – Government This unit provides an overview of government and discusses systems and structure of government, interaction between governments, and citizens. Unit 5 – Looking at the Past This unit discusses how we organize time, sources of history, archaeology, and historical maps. Unit 6 – The United States This unit discusses the physical and political regions of the United States, early America, the United States as a new country, the United States as a world power, the American economy and culture, and America's relationship with the rest of the world. Unit 7 – Canada This unit discusses the geography, climate, resources, environment, economy, government, and culture of Canada, as well as early Canadians, France versus Britain, World War and independence, and Canada's relationship with the rest of the world. Unit 8 – Mexico This unit discusses the geography, resources, environment, government, culture, and economy of Mexico, as well as early Mexicans, Spain and independence, Mexico as a Republic and the trouble it encountered. Unit 9 – Central America This unit discusses the geography, land, tourism, environmental troubles, culture, and regional governments of Central America, as well as early people of Central America, colonization and slavery, and the decisions made by countries in this area to form democracies or dictatorships. Unit 10 – Caribbean South America This unit discusses Caribbean South America, including its climate, geography, and people, the history of its people, its independence, environment, problems, government, and economy. Unit 11 – Andes and Pampas This unit discusses the geography, resources, people, independence, dictators, economy, and environment of Andes and Pampas, as well as their early people and the Incas, colonial Andes and Pampas, and Spanish Culture and new governments in South America. Unit 12 – Brazil This unit discusses the geography, ecosystems, people, independence, republic, dictators, culture, environment issues, economy, and government of Brazil, as well as the relationship between Portugal and Brazil. Unit 13 – Ancient Greece and Rome This unit discusses city-states in the Aegean, the beginnings of democracy, life in the city-states, greek warfare, the Roman Republic and Empire, and Christianity and the fall of the Empire. Unit 14 – Middle Ages to Renaissance This unit discusses the Byzantine Empire, the rise of new kingdoms, feudalism, the Crusades, the growth of European cities, England and Magna Carta, conditions that weakened society, the beginning and spread of the Renaissance, and religious reform. Unit 15 – Exploration to Revolution This unit discusses Marco Polo through Columbus, the European Empires, absolute rule, the Enlightenment, revolution in Europe, and industrial revolution. Unit 16 – The 20th Century This unit discusses the Great War, the Great Depression, World War II, the Iron Curtain, the European Curtain, the Democratic Revolution, and challenges for Europe. Unit 17 – Western Europe This unit discusses the geography of West Europe, the people of Europe, urbanization, the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, France, the Low Countries, the Germanic Countries, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, Italy, modern cities, and challenges faced by West Europe. Unit 18 – Eastern Europe This unit discusses the geography and resources of East Europe, religious diversity, Poland and the Baltic states, the Central European states, the Balkan State, and the Eastern States. Unit 19 – Russia This unit discusses the geography, climate, resources, people, and beginnings of Russia, as well as the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union in the Cold War, the new Russia, its challenges, and its relationships with the rest of the world. Unit 20 – West Africa This unit discusses the geography, people, land, disease, historical trade, independence, economic and political challenge, and culture of West Africa, as well as Europeans in East Africa, and how war affects the unity and future of the West African countries. Unit 21 – East Africa This unit discusses the geography, rich lands, environment, disease, independence, culture, and war in East Africa. Also covered are the great civilizations of the past, Europeans in East Africa, apartheid, and the potential of Africa. Unit 22 – North Africa This unit discusses the geography, culture, economy, and government of North Africa, dry land, the importance of trade, ancient Egypt, and Arabs in Africa, as well as Europeans in North Africa. Unit 23 – Arabia This unit discusses the geograhpy of Arabia, the importance of oil, the desert and people of Arabia, diversity, Mesopotamia, Islam, Muslim civilization, modern Arabia, the Gulf wars, oil and economy, and Arabia's relationship with the rest of the world. Unit 24 – The Holy Land This unit discusses the geography of the Holy Land, water in the desert, the importance of religion, what Canaan and Judaism have in common and how they are related, what Judaism and Christianity have in common and how they are related, how empires and religion are related, which countries gained their independence and how this led to war, politics in the Holy Land, standards of living, the causes of conflict between Palestine and Israel, and the ideals that cause clashes in the Holy Land. Unit 25 – Iran and Turkey This unit discusses the geography of Iran and Turkey, ethnicity and religion, Persia, the path that led from Rome to the invasion of the Turks, imperial collapse, Islamic response, Iran's place in the world today, Turkey, and Cyprus. Unit 26 – Central Asia This unit discusses the geography, resources, and cultures in Central Asia, as well as crossroads and Empires, communism in Central Asia, what life is like in Central Asia now that the Soviet Union has fallen, and challenges for the new governments there. Unit 27 – South Asia This unit discusses the geography of South Asia and its importance, early South Asian history, empires of South Asia, South Asia's independence, culture, people, tension, and economies. Unit 28 – China This unit discusses the geography, population, ethnicities, philosophers, communism, and environmental challenges of China, as well as empires in China and Mongolia, revolution, politics in East Asia, how exports lead to growth, and unequal society. Unit 29 – Japan and Korea This unit discusses the geography, resources, and history of Japan and Korea, as well as natural hazards, the events that triggered change, the Korean War, the reconstruction of Japan, prosperity in South Korea, hardship in North Korea, and life in Japan. Unit 30 – Southeast Asia This unit discusses the geography, colonization, governments, environment, and economies of Southeast Asia, as well as land use and urbanization, Asian diversity, and historical Southeast Asia. Unit 31 – Oceana This unit discusses the geography, resources, migration, colonization, culture, government, economy, and environmental challenges of Oceana. Also covered is Antarctica.

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