AP Chemistry

AP Chemistry

Course Features

Course Details


Course Overview

The AP Chemistry course gives students a college-level foundation on which to build more advanced course work in chemistry. Students expand their understanding of chemistry through inquiry-based investigations, as they delve deeper into the following topics:
  • atomic structure
  • intermolecular forces and bonding
  • chemical reactions
  • kinetics
  • thermodynamics
  • equilibrium
Acellus AP Chemistry is taught by Dr. James Chapman and Greg Spiegel.  This course has been audited and approved by the College Board. Acellus AP Chemistry is A-G Approved through the University of California.
This course was developed by the International Academy of Science. Learn More

Scope and Sequence

Unit 1 - Introduction to Chemistry and Units of Measurement In this unit students are introduced to why we study chemistry. They review the scientific method, states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. They learn about elements, compounds, and mixtures, as well as separation methods for mixtures. They study physical versus chemical changes and physical versus chemical properties. They explore SI units and prefixes, including temperature and conversion, as well as volume derived units and density derived units. They come to understand the importance of a lab notebook. The lab for this unit is on thin layer chromatography. Unit 2 - Uncertainty in Data In this unit students learn about measured and exact numbers. They discuss significant figures, including rounding, adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing with significant figures. They learn precision and accuracy in data analysis. They study scientific notation, including adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, as well as unit conversion and units raised to a power. Unit 3 - Atomic Theory In this unit students study atomic theory. They learn the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions, and the law of multiple proportions. In addition, they explore early theory and John Dalton's atomic theory. Unit 4 - Atomic Structures In this unit students learn about atomic structures. They study the organization of the atom. They explore different atoms and isotopes. They investigate periodic law and the periodic table. They become familiar with ions, atomic mass, the mole, converting moles to atoms, and converting mass to moles. The lab for this unit is on the synthesis of alum. Unit 5 - Chemical Formulas and Models - Ionic Compounds In this unit, students investigate chemical formulas and models, and ionic compounds. They learn about the types of chemical bonds, chemical formulas, and molecular models. They explore an atomic view of elements and compounds, as well as properties and formulas of ionic compounds. They learn the names of ions, and study metals with a single charge state and with multiple charge states. They learn about polyatomic ions and naming hydrates. The lab for this unit is on the analysis of calcium in hard water. Unit 6 - Covalent Molecular Compounds In this unit students study covalent molecular compounds. They learn the names of binary molecular compounds and explore naming acids, as well as calculating formula mass and molar mass. They learn to convert moles to particles and moles to mass, and learn about mole ratios of compounds, percent composition calculations, empirical and molecular formula calculations, and empirical formulas in combustion analysis. The lab for this unit is on determining the formula of a hydrate. Unit 7 - Chemical Equations in Stoichiometry In this unit students learn about chemical reactions, including balancing chemical equations and finding out how much. They learn to do mole-to-mole, as well as mole-to-mass or mass-to-mole and mass-to-mass equations. They come to understand limiting reactants and percent yield. The lab for this unit is on mole ratios in chemical reactions. Unit 8 - Chemical Reactions In this unit students continue to study chemical reactions. They learn about reactions in water and precipitation reactions, about acids and bases and neutralization reactions, about gas-evolution reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and combustion reactions. The lab for this unit is on redox titration. Unit 9 - Gases In this unit students explore gases. They learn about pressure units, Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, Avogadro's Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, and the Combined Gas Law. They explore the Ideal Gas Law, including molar mass and density, and they investigate Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. They go on to understand stoichiometry in relation to gases, both volume-volume and volume-mass. They also study kinetic molecular theory and behavior of gases. Next students delve into real gases, studying the effect of particle volume, the effect of intermolecular forces, and the Van der Waals Equation. Finally, students take a look at the gases in the atmosphere. There are two labs in this unit, one on determining the molar volume of a gas, and one on determining molar volume of volatile liquid. Unit 10 - Thermochemistry In this unit students discover thermochemistry. They discuss energy, including definitions and units. They also discuss the first law of thermodynamics, heat, work, constant volume calorimetry, and enthalpy. They study exothermic and endothermic reactions, constant pressure calorimetry, and Hess's law. Further, they learn about standard heats of formation, calculating enthalpy change for a reaction, and energy use and environmental consequences. Unit 11 - Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom In this unit students learn about the quantum mechanical model of the atom. In preparation for this, they discuss the wave nature of light, and go on to explore the electromagnetic spectrum of light and its particle nature, atomic spectroscopy and the Bohr Model. They study the wave nature of matter. quantum mechanics model for atom, and atomic spectroscopy and orbital shapes. They learn about the electronic configuration of atoms, valence electrons, electronic configuration and periodicity, and periodic trends - atomic size/electronegativity. They investigate the electronic configuration of ions and radii, and study electronic configuration of ions - radii, and periodic trends in ionization energy, electron affinity, and metallic character. Unit 12 - Chemical Bonds - Ionic Bonds In this unit students study types of bonds and formation. They discuss the Lewis Dot Structure for atoms, and ionic bonds and electron transfer. They explore trends in lattice energy such as ion size and charge, and investigate the properties of ionic bonding. Unit 13 - Chemical Bonds - Covalent Bonds In this unit students come to understand the covalent bond, the single covalent bond, and the multiple covalent bond. They also study electronegativity, polarity, and percent ionic character. They discus Lewis Structure, including covalent compound, polyatomic ions, resonance, formal charge, and exceptions. Students also explore bond energy, bond length, and bonding in metals. Unit 14 - Molecular Shapes and VSEPR In this unit students learn about molecular shapes and valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), including the effect of lone pairs. They study the molecular shapes of large molecules, and molecular shapes and polarity. They also learn about hybridization, including sp3, sp2, sp, sp3d, and sp3d2. They further discuss molecular orbital theory in relation to period 1 and 2 elements. Unit 15 - Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces In this unit students compare solids, liquids, and gases. They discuss how intermolecular forces determine state of matter. They explore liquids, solids, and vaporization and vapor pressure. They learn about the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation in regard to heat of vaporization and vapor pressure. They study critical point, sublimation and fusion, phase diagrams, crystalline solids, and types of crystalline solids. Unit 16 - Solutions In this unit students study solutions. They discuss homogeneous mixture, solution formation, solvation - ionic and molecular compounds, and solubility. They focus on concentration, including percent by mass, concentration - percent by volume, molarity, dilution of molar solutions, molality, and mole fraction and mole percent. They learn about vapor pressure and Raoult's Law, and about ideal and non-ideal solutions. They learn the colligative properties, including boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmosis, and the van't Hoff Factor. They also learn about heterogeneous mixture called colloids. The lab for this unit is on the analysis of alum. Unit 17 - Kinetics In this unit students discuss kinetics. They learn about reaction rates, rate laws, integrated rate law, and reaction half-life. In addition, they explore temperature effects on reaction rates, arrhenius plots, collision model, reaction mechanisms, rate determining steps, and catalysis. The lab for this unit is on kinetics of crystal violet. Unit 18 - Equilibrium In this unit students explore dynamic equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, equilibrium constant values, constant expression and chemical equations, and equilibrium constant expression - pressure. They investigate heterogeneous equilibria in solids and liquids, equilibrium constant in calculations, reaction quotient, equilibrium concentration calculations, and initial values for concentration calculations and pressure calculations. as we;; as approximations in concentration calculations. They study Le Chatelier's Principle in regard to concentration change. They discuss pressure or volume change, and Le Chatelier's Principle in regard to temperature. The lab for this unit is on determining the equilibrium constant. Unit 19 - Acids and Bases - Part 1 Students begin this unit by reviewing the properties of acids and bases. They learn about the Arrhenius Model, the Bronsted-Lowry model, and the Lewis model. They discuss the strength of acids, weak acid ionization constants, the strength of bases, weak base ionization constants, and hydrogen ions and the ion product constant. They learn about pH and pOH, pH and H+ calculations, pOH and OH- calculations, pH and pOH calculations, and pH and pOH of strong acids and bases. Unit 20 - Acids and Bases - Part 2 In this unit students continue their study of acids and bases. They learn about Ka for weak acids, including known concentrations, unknown concentrations, and quadratic equation. They also explore Ka calculations for weak acids regarding pH. They discuss percent ionization of weak acids, and mixtures of acids, including strong and weak as well as weak and weak. They explore cations as weak acids, and learn about basic, acidic, and neutral salt solutions. They explore polyprotic acids - dilute strong acid, polyprotic acids - weak acid calculations, and acid rain. The lab for this unit is on acid base titration. Unit 21 - Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium In the Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium unit, students learn about buffers, pH buffer calculations (acid and conjugate base), the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation, pH calculations with addition of acid or base, pH buffer calculations (base and conjugate acid), and buffer capacity and range. They also learn about titration, including strong acid/strong base and weak acid/strong base. They explore Ksp, molar solubility, relative solubility, common ion effect on solubility, pH effect on solubility, precipitation reactions, selective precipitation, the effect of complex ion equilibria on solubility, and solubility of amphoteric metal hydroxides. The lab in this unit is on determining Ka of a weak acid. Unit 22 - Thermodynamics In this unit students study spontaneous and nonspontaneous reactions, entropy and second law of thermodynamics, entropy and changes of state, entropy and change to the surroundings, and Gibbs free energy. They investigate standard molar entropies, calculations of standard entropy changes, calculations of free energy change - g=h-ts, free energies of formation, free energy change - stepwise reactions, and free energy change - nonstandard conditions. The lab in this unit is on energy content of fuels. Unit 23 - Electrochemistry In this unit students discuss oxidation-reduction - acidic solution and oxidation-reduction - basic solution. They learn about voltaic/galvanic cells, electrochemical cell notation, and standard reduction potentials. They learn to predict direction of redox reactions and to predict metal dissolution in acid. They explore Gibbs free energy and standard cell potential, standard cell potential and equilibrium constant, standard cell potential and nonstandard conditions, concentration cells, electrolytic cells, products of electrolysis, and stoichiometry of electrolysis. The labs in this unit are on electrochemistry and lead storage batteries. Unit 24 - Nuclear Chemistry and Radioactivity In this unit students learn about the discovery and types of radioactivity, writing nuclear equations, and predicting radioactive decay. They study half-lives, radio-carbon dating, fission and fusion, harmful radiation, and applications of radioactivity. Unit 25 - Organic Molecules In this unit students explore the properties of organic molecules. They learn about hydrocarbons, including alkanes and drawing structures. They study hydrocarbons - alkanes, including straight-chain alkanes, branched-chain alkanes, cyclic alkanes, and structures from names. Regarding hydrocarbons, they investigate, cycloalkenes, and alkynes, including their nomenclature. Also regarding hydrocarbons, students also investigate aromatic and isomers. They learn about functional groups of substituted hydrocarbons, as well as about halocarbons, alcohols, ethers, amines, aldehydes, and ketones. They study carboxylic acid, including ester and amide, and substitution reactions, elimination reactions, addition reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and polymers.


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